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ETAP Wind Turbine Generator includes two approaches for studying wind power systems when combined with the appropriate network analysis capabilities and simulation scenarios:
Wind farm designers or planners can model and simulate wind turbine generators using any technology type, design wind power collector systems, size underground cables, determine adequacy of system grounding, and more. Access of engineering device libraries for wind turbine generator, cables, protection relays, overhead lines, etc. make the design process flexible yet efficient.
System planners can represent wind turbine generator as a single machine mathematical model of the entire wind farm to understand the impact of wind penetration in the grid under variability of wind.
System dynamic behavior can be studied by changing wind speed (gust, ramp), tripping the wind plant, simulating system faults at wind turbine or grid connected buses. Study results determine extent of system vulnerability with increase in penetration and uncertainty of wind power generation. User-defined actions may be added to simulate wind turbine and grid transient recovery variations and relay operations. It also predicts the dynamic response of each individual wind turbine generator.
ETAP Wind Turbine Generator can be used to verify grid connection compliance, steady-state and dynamic simulation of whole wind parks, size collector systems, calculate short circuit current levels, analyzing alternative turbine placement, tuning of control parameters, selection and placement of protective devices, and more.
There are presently two major industry groups working towards the development of generic
models for use in power system simulations for wind turbine generators – the Western Electricity
Coordinating Council (WECC) Renewable Energy Modeling Task Force (REMTF) and the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee (TC) 88, Working Group (WG) 27.
In general, the most commonly sold and installed technologies in today’s market (both in the US and overseas) tend to be the type 3 and 4 units. All the major equipment vendors supply one or both of these technologies. There are, however, large numbers of the type 1 and 2 units in service around the world, and so modeling them is also of importance. Some vendors do still supply the type 1 and 2 turbines as well.
ETAP includes wind turbine models developed by the WECC Modeling & Validation Working Group & IEC Technical Committee Working Group. These models were developed for analyzing the stability impact of large arrays of wind turbines with a single point of network interconnection. Dynamic simulations have been performed with these models, and comparisons made with results derived from higher-order models used in manufacturer-specific representations of aero conversion and drivetrain dynamics.
The machine is pitch-regulated, and drives a squirrel cage induction generator which is directly coupled to the grid. The generic model consists of generator model, drive train model and pitch controller.
The machine operates with variable slip. It utilizes a wound rotor induction generator whose rotor winding is brought out via slip rings and brushes. An external rotor resistance is electronically modulated to affect dynamic changes in the machine’s torque-speed characteristics. The generic model includes generator model, external resistance controller, drive train model and pitch controller.
The machine is a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), or partial conversion. The turbine is pitch-regulated and features a wound rotor induction generator with an AC/DC/AC power converter connected between the rotor terminals and grid. The generator stator winding is directly coupled to the grid. The power converter in the rotor circuit allows for independent control of generator torque and flux, providing fast active and reactive power control over a wide range of generator speeds.
The turbine is pitch-regulated and features an AC/DC/AC power converter through which the entire power of the generator is processed. The generator may be either an induction or synchronous type. The power converter allows for independent control of quadrature and direct axis output currents at the grid interface, providing fast active and reactive power control over a wide range of generator speeds.
An overview of wind farm modeling and simulation using the ETAP Renewable module.
The challenges of directional protection of a wind farm collector are presented in this webinar. ETAP StarZ™ Protection & Coordination module is utilized to set and analyze protection of wind power plant collectors.
Electrical Power System Analysis & Operation Software
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