89 Item(s) found

Phase to Phase Fault Debacle: Fault Lasted 1.7s/108 Cycles. Protection Studies are quite Challenging

Phase to Phase Fault Debacle: Fault Lasted 1.7s/108 Cycles. Protection Studies are quite Challenging

How a failure, to properly perform protection studies, led to a significant substation safety incident and outage. ​Understanding minimum and maximum fault current values are critical in this case study. The shortcomings led to a fault not being removed fast enough.  Short circuit impedances are very valuable, it is critical to have the right cables and impedances of the equipment. An excellent learning from this case study is that line to line arc flash fault exists much longer at medium voltage level. In low voltage we do not see those type of line-to-line arc flash faults because line to line arc flash fault will rapidly turn into a three-phase fault. The arc flash calculator is a great tool to estimate incident energy.  The arc flash calculator shows both methods:  below 15 kv we can use IEEE 1584-2018 to calculate incident energy at 15 Kv, and above our fault calculated method can calculate calories exposure during the fault.

Methods for Evaluating DC Arc Incident Energy in PV Systems

Methods for Evaluating DC Arc Incident Energy in PV Systems

Renewable energy systems continue to be one of the fastest growing segments of the energy industry. This presentation focuses on the understanding of how photovoltaic (PV) technology behaves under dc arc conditions. A comparative analysis of the arc flash incident energy calculation method developed in collaboration between National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and ETAP details the effect of PV module I-V and P-V curves under arcing conditions. Examples of the application of the proposed calculation method to the test measurements are included.

T&D Network Analysis & Planning Solutions - Session Intro

T&D Network Analysis & Planning Solutions - Session Intro

Solution overview and presenters introduction.

ETAP ADMS ™: интегрированные SCADA, DMS, OMS и управление персоналом

ETAP ADMS ™: интегрированные SCADA, DMS, OMS и управление персоналом

Smart Distribution Management is all about quality and reliable energy delivery to the consumers. To ensure that, distribution network utilities must be able to recognize real-time the exact state of their network for any operational violation and the exact state of consumers’ connectivity for any service interruption.

Distribution Network Analysis

Distribution Network Analysis

Alpine Energy Case Study – Building a model for today and the uncertain tomorrow. To maximize the benefit from our ETAP models, we developed a system that makes use of the available features to provide structure to our system models, and allow flexibility to deal with future model expansion and changes. The foundation to achieving this objective was the establishment of a naming convention and model structure that would enable the loading of models and data handling processes to be done with ease. Further enhancing our use of ETAP, we make use of templates and color coding linked to the themes to match the real world network in the modelling world. Lastly, the library was built from scratch and has now matured to a stage where new data is phased in and updated during the validation of models. Following our investment in building our models, in order to maximize the benefit from our ETAP, we developed rigorous processes to ensure accuracy and consistency in building models and managing data. Once data is updated, we utilize ETAP to run Load Flow, Fault Level and Protection Coordination studies and rely on ETAP multi-dimensional database capabilities to set financial years, switching configurations and add new proposed loads to the relevant configuration year. Combining the above features and processes, we have established a disciplined and rigorous Network Development Planning process using ETAP. This has enabled us to plan for the future in an efficient and effective manner. Our ETAP models are benchmarked against actual power system conditions by collecting historical demand data (voltages and currents) from smart meters at customer level, power quality measurement devices at distribution transformers, protection relays at substations, and our SCADA system. But this is not the end, we have developed a future roadmap for our ETAP models with plans to fully integrate with our geospatial information system and our supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) environment, to utilize protection coordination, and build smart scenario wizards to do the hard work for us.

Review Process in Protection Coordination Studies

Review Process in Protection Coordination Studies

A practical example of an internal review of a protection coordination study, including the definition of protective device settings & characteristics.

Protection Coordination at Panama Mina de Cobre

Protection Coordination at Panama Mina de Cobre

Design and commission of a green-site power system including protection coordination for the entire site and implementation of IEC61850 communications, inter-tripping, inter-locking and protection blocking schemes.

Konexa's Digital Grid Journey

Konexa's Digital Grid Journey

Konexa rolling out its integrated distribution model with multiple DISCOs across Nigeria. In its sub-concession area, Konexa will develop embedded generation capacity (solar PV), and invest in the distribution network (medium voltage line, distribution transformers, injection substations) and last mile reticulation (low voltage lines, smart metering infrastructure). In addition, Konexa will invest in and implement IT & OT systems and processes to drive operational efficiency and significantly reduce ATC&C losses. The first phase of the project would serve about 7,000 customers (C&I and residentials).

Remote Management of Protection Relays

Remote Management of Protection Relays

This presentation defines and demonstrates the importance of remote data collection of protection relays for the security and reliability of large power system networks.  

Oman Electricity Transmission Company grid stations contain more than 5000 rapidly expanding protection relays installed. In case of tripping incidences, the protection system would isolate the faulty primary equipment by actuating the switchgear. These isolated equipment restorations can be done faster if protection relays’ fault records and events can be retrieved through remote access at any time. ETAP and OETC jointly worked to provide remote relay access and data retrieval. The protection system model and relay data feed in a relay management system solution, is called ETAP eProtect. This system is connected through IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-103 protocol to linked relays, events, and fault records. Fault records are stored in a database for detailed analysis and validation. This presentation discusses the challenges faced, technical requirements, and benefits of the solution.

Reactive Power based LCOE Analysis

Reactive Power based LCOE Analysis

High penetration of solar PV energy fed into an electrical grid brings its share of challenges making the grid volatile which requires stabilizing variable energy. This presentation addresses one such challenge, of voltage profile improvement with reactive power compensation at the point of interconnection. A solar PV plant is rated in terms of power (either AC or DC) and is typically not rated for their reactive counterparts (MVAr). IEEE 1547/UL 1741 compliant inverters will typically not have reactive power capability and operate with a unity power factor. Although modern inverters have a capacity to supply reactive power in the range of +0.9 lead/-0.9 lag, the PV plant is rated based on the AC power supplied by the inverter at unity PF. Operational data sourced from various plants in India suggest that a typical utility-scale PV plant provides reactive energy in the range of 7% to 10%. This leads to an inherent error in the per-unit cost calculation, as when the inverter providing the reactive power, the active power is hampered. This paper showcases a cost-to-benefit analysis of various scenarios, such as unity power.

Using ETAP to Evaluate Ground Fault Trips in a Microgrid

Using ETAP to Evaluate Ground Fault Trips in a Microgrid

Adding distributed generation sources to existing power distribution systems and the implementation of islanding microgrid capability introduce protection and control challenges if not properly designed.  Each new generator may present a new source ground fault current to the system, which can result in unanticipated breaker operation. Energy Systems Group, was using ETAP to model the system and check coordination of local and remote breakers can reduce downtime and troubleshooting.

Generator Brush Collector Ring’s Arc Flash Hazard, A Safety Concern!

Generator Brush Collector Ring’s Arc Flash Hazard, A Safety Concern!

For some types of generator exciter systems, collector rings and brushes are used to provide energy from the exciter to the rotating field. The brushes wear down and constantly need to be replaced with the unit on-line and while brush/ring assembly is still energized, a risky and unsafe maintenance operation and may cause a serious harm. A potential shock and arc-flash hazard. This presentation addresses the important and dangerous maintenance of worn-down collector rings and brushes, electrical safety, lack of standards and guidelines, and a first possible calculation method.

AC and DC Arc Flash Methods for Renewable Energy Systems

AC and DC Arc Flash Methods for Renewable Energy Systems

This presentation will address the difficulties and lessons learnt on performing arc flash analysis using available methods (outside the voltage limits of IEEE 1584-2018 standard) on a 2.3 MW PV generation facility. The analysis includes system modeling, short-circuit, arc flash (both AC and DC) using various applicable calculation methods that best fit this application along with available tools in ETAP and generating worst-case arc flash deliverables.

AC Arc Flash Analysis for a Datacenter Network in Italy to determine the PPE for Workers using ETAP

AC Arc Flash Analysis for a Datacenter Network in Italy to determine the PPE for Workers using ETAP

Arc Flash Analysis was performed on a new datacenter building in Italy, calculating Incident Energy and Arc Flash Boundaries at several locations, from the main 15kV distribution switch gears down to the main LV distribution switchboard and diversionary panel boards in each segment. The studies were performed using ETAP Arc Flash software to identify the correct personal protection equipment (PPE) for engineering staff during maintenances operations. Standards applied include: NFPA 70E-2021, IEEE 1584-2018, IEC 60909 (2016).

GreeNext to Provide Sustainable and Resilient Energy-as-a-Service, in Collaboration with ETAP

GreeNext to Provide Sustainable and Resilient Energy-as-a-Service, in Collaboration with ETAP

This presentation introduces GreeNext, a joint venture providing sustainable and resilient energy solutions to commercial and industrial customers through solar and battery hybrid microgrid technology. Learn how and why GreeNext will utilize ETAP Software and controller hardware to increase deployment speed and provide an additional layer of reliability for Data Centers.

Sustainable Transportation - SCADA & Maintenance Planning – MMRC Project Update

Sustainable Transportation - SCADA & Maintenance Planning – MMRC Project Update

Today’s Transportation businesses call for sustainable mobility. The goal is to deliver an end-to-end digital solution throughout the asset lifecycle to optimize critical mobility infrastructure management for the optimal customer experience in rail, airports, roads, and ports. 


This case study for Mumbai Metro Rail covers Operator Training Simulator (OTS), a simulation environment to test operations in a real-time environment for the following reasons: error avoidance, communication enhancement & training of new crews, train inexperienced operators, certification and competency for operators, situational awareness & workload management. Learn about the scope of work, implementation requirements, lessons learned, and future developments of this project. 

Modeling and Analysis of a Microgrid for a Wastewater Treatment Plant - AECOM

Modeling and Analysis of a Microgrid for a Wastewater Treatment Plant - AECOM

Engineering and operation objectives of mission-critical facilities require a reliable and secure power supply system. Microgrids have become the leading technological solution for a resilient and sustainable supply of electricity for critical infrastructures. This paper presents ETAP-based power system studies of a microgrid designed for a mission-critical facility, a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The microgrid consists of a behind-the-meter (BTM) solar photovoltaic (PV) system, a battery energy storage system (BESS), a combined heat and power (CHP) generator, and standby diesel generators. We modeled this microgrid by leveraging the ETAP software and performed power system studies for both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. Several scenarios were created based on different loading conditions and power source combinations, which are utilized to validate the power system studies. We will discuss the model of the power system investigated, operational strategy and sequences of operation, findings, challenges, lessons learned, and future works.

Powering IT/OT Convergence for DC Management in Data Centers with ETAP

Powering IT/OT Convergence for DC Management in Data Centers with ETAP

Electrical infrastructure can only be managed by including both equipment and data. Transforming electrical data to information and knowledge for decision-makers of mission-critical facilities requires IT-compatible software with the latest technologies’ integration capabilities. This presentation shows how ETAP enables end-users to achieve sustainable operations in their critical facilities by fulfilling OT/Site Management and IT Management requirements. ETAP’s unique features are configured with respect to data center topology and sustainable operation principles. These features are enriched as we have positioned ETAP in the corporate environment of end-users, where their corporate IT standards, services, and tools are integrated. As the title suggests, both OT and IT protocols are commissioned together, and the management of electrical infrastructure is powered by IT services via ETAP.

Upgrading Bokaro Steel Plant's existing Supervisory Load Control Centre System with ETAP SCADA

Upgrading Bokaro Steel Plant's existing Supervisory Load Control Centre System with ETAP SCADA

Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is one of the largest steel-making companies in India and one of the Maharatnas of the country’s Central Public Sector Enterprises. ETAP was selected to upgrade the existing SLCC (Supervisory Load Control Centre) System for Power Distribution of Bokaro Steel Plant. This presentation will give insights into the project scope and deployment: The SCADA/PDMS system shall monitor and control the Distribution & Sub-Distribution stations and achieve the SCADA/PDMS functions, integrated with the SLCC control center. Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) is having a client/server architecture-based SCADA System for monitoring and controlling of generation, import, and distribution of power through SLCC Control room at MSDS-I. The SLCC system is also connected to a central SLCC system located in Kolkata. RTUs for substations will be installed in various locations which are connected through a dedicated fiber-optic network to the server.

How ETAP was utilized  to  expand  the Electrical System at the Tailings Dam Copper Mine in Peru

How ETAP was utilized to expand the Electrical System at the Tailings Dam Copper Mine in Peru

As part of their Tailings Dam Expansion project, a large copper mine in Peru required to have several studies performed in their electrical system. As loads were added and the topology of the system was changing, the client wanted to ensure that their electrical system would be able to handle the new loads and operate reliably and efficiently. Electro Integra S.A.C. was hired to perform Load Flow, Short Circuit, Relay Coordination, Motor Starting and Optimal Capacitor Placement studies. ETAP was used as the tool to perform all the studies because the client has been using ETAP for over 20 years.

Since 2000, Electro Integra has partnered with ETAP to bring their software solutions to the Peruvian market. Continuous development and investment in ETAP Solutions has kept them as the de facto standard for power system analysis for all types and sizes of electrical industries.