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Technical Articles

The articles listed below include magazine articles written about ETAP, published magazine articles written by ETAP Engineers, and white papers published in industry conferences.

1. adobe pdf Hazards of Single-Phase Arc Flash
Electrical Safety Measures, July/August 2009 (1.15 MB)

Many people have questions about how to determine the hazard level associated with 1-phase arc flash incidents. This article presents different methods for assessing the hazards of high- and low-voltage 1-phase equipment.
2. adobe pdf Limitations of Arc Flash Hazard Tables
Electrical Line, July/August 2008 (438 KB)

It's important to understand the Hazard/Risk Category levels listed in NFPA 70E, but it's just as important to understand the limitations of these tables. If these limitations aren't considered, you may be jeopardizing the safety of electrical workers.
3. adobe pdf Assessing Low-Voltage Arc Hazards
Electrical Source, June 2008 (980 KB)

Arc flash safety is an integral part of any workplace safety program. This article explains how arc flash software is essential to identifying and analyzing high-risk arc flash areas, so you can help keep your electrical staff safer.
4. adobe pdf Evaluating NFPA 70E Arc Flash Hazard Category Tables
Electrical Products & Solutions, September 2007 (511 KB)

This article sheds some light onto the assumptions and generalizations utilized by the NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(9)(a) and to describe its limitations and shortcomings which may lead to an improper selection of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
5. adobe pdf Evaluating the Hazards of Low-Voltage Arcs
Electrical Products & Solutions, June 2007 (1.16 MB)

This article discusses methods available for calculating the incident energy released by an arc fault in low-voltage equipment. It also presents considerations to determine the worst-possible hazard associated with energized work at different locations of the equipment.
6. adobe pdf Wind Industry Focus: ETAP Wind Turbine Generator
Wind Today, Q4 2006 (3 MB)

Power engineers are using ETAP to model wind turbine generators, model turbine and controller characteristics for dynamic stability analysis, and calculate megawatts (MW) and reactive power generation based on wind speed and turbine characteristics.
7. adobe pdf Using Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Generation Allocation to Reduce Losses and Improve Voltage Profile
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 37 2008 (687 k)

This paper presents a method for the optimal allocation of Distributed generation in distribution systems. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software and applied ETAP software for evaluating of results correctness. It was implemented on part of Tehran electricity distributing grid.
8. adobe pdf Interactive objectives and constraints between microgrid elements of the smart grid
The Singapore Engineer, March 2012 (687 k)

Fazel Farahmand, from Operation Technology Inc, California, USA, provides a comprehensive review of microgrids and smart grid control strategies. The review covers clean energy stability analysis, generation control, generation forecasting, load forecasting, power management, load management, interchange analysis of microgrids, multiobjective and multi-constraint optimisation, as well as load shedding on localised and global grids.
8. adobe pdf Impact of Harmonics on the Performance of Over-Current Relays
The University of Queensland, Australia, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (715 KB)

This Paper investigates the impact of power system harmonics on the performance of over-current relays. Simulation is performed on the IEEE 30-Bus system with heavy penetration of non-linear loads using ETAP software. Simulation results show that with significant harmonic contents in the power network, a relay malfunction will occur and they will trip in a wrong sequence when there is a fault in the system.