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Photovoltaic Array / Solar Panel


Design, Analyze & Operate Solar Farms with ETAP


Photovoltaic (PV) array is one of the important elements of renewable energy, microgrid, smart grid, etc. It converts solar radiation energy into direct current using semiconductors and then to alternating current electric power through inverters. ETAP Photovoltaic Array is used to represent individual panels connected in series and parallel combinations with a grid tied inverter in order to simulate and analyze grid connected solar farms.

Photovoltaic array element is part of the ETAP Renewable Energy system and is fully integrated with all ETAP calculation modules such as Load Flow, Short circuit, Transient Stability, Harmonic Analysis, Protective Device Coordination, and ETAP Real-Time solutions. The characteristics of the photovoltaic such as the Power-Voltage (P-V) curve and the Current-Voltage (I-V) curve can be defined in ETAP using the Photovoltaic Library or manually specifying the Maximum Peak Power Voltage (Vmp-p), Maximum Peak Power Current Imp-p, Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) and Short Circuit current (Isc).


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ETAP considers the effect of performance coefficients such as changes in irradiance and cell temperature and can automatically recalculate the power output from the Photovoltaic array. The Photovoltaic array elements also includes an irradiance calculator than can calculate the solar irradiance incident upon a location. Solar Irradiance is the power per unit area available at a location due to solar radiation. The solar irradiance calculator is especially useful when designing or estimating electrical power output from the panels without knowledge of the entire network.


Photovoltaic Array Analysis Program Key Features


  • The Photovoltaic Array Analysis module gives you the ability to model unlimited solar panels individually or in groups and connect them in series and/or parallel combinations to form a solar array.
  • User-defined solar panel library with P-V and I-V characteristics
  • Solar irradiance calculator to determine irradiance in watts per square meter based on specified date, time and location
  • Simulate solar irradiance changes and its effect on the solar farm output
  • Create multiple solar irradiance categories for predictive “what if” studies & scenarios
  • Built-in inverter model eliminates the need for unnecessary node connections
  • Model behavior of Maximum Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) Controller for Inverters



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